THE GREAT LEAP FORWARD: AN INEVITABLE NEED OF HISTORY
[This is the full text of the historic document presented by Chairman Prachanda and adopted by the Second National Conference of CPN (Maoist) in February 2001. -Ed]
"Correctness or othenvise of the ideological and political line decides everything. if it is correct, everything is gained but if it wrong, everything, even if gained, is lost."
With its own originality and grandeur, the People's War has completed its five memorable years and is entering the sixth. Through its rapid development process, it is entering an entirely new and higher stage of achievements and challenges during this period. The ideological synthesis of the experiences of those five years on the
basis of universal principles of invincible Marxism-Leninism-Maoism has been necessary for the continuation and further development of the Nepalese revolution
and to serve the world revolution as well. Needless to say, this synthesis shall be based on lofty objectives of furthering the world revolution in the 21st century, learning lessons from both world communist movement and Nepalese communist movement. Moreover, it shall be the synthesis of achievements gained through initiatives and active participation of millions of Masses in the historical and great process of People's War. Lastly, it shall be the rehearsal of the great leap forward. This National Conference held amidst the People's War shall in keeping with the gravity and broadness of the question, draw correct conclusions through broad and serious discussion in a fully democratic environment, and, ultimately, be indisputably successful.
HEARTY HOMAGE TO THE GREAT AND IMMORTAL MARTYRS
The toiling masses have been forging ahead the struggles for thousands of years in various forms and levels against all kinds of discrimination, exploitation, oppression and atrocities by men on men. The human society has reached the capitalist era from slave and feudal era in course of incessant process of class struggle, struggle for
production and scientific experiment. As an inevitable consequence, modem proletarian class emerged together with the capitalist era. The emergence of this last and
revolutionary class of history produced Marxism, which is, in fact, the supreme synthesis of the knowledge and experiences of the human beings and ideology of the
proletariat. For the first time in history, Marxism consciously established the right of the proletariat and toiling masses to rebel against the right of exploiting classes to
exploit, which they had been enjoying for thousands of years. Besides, it drew a scientific conclusion that the ultimate result of this rebellion shall be the founding of
communism in the world.
Together with Marxism as an historical invention of the proletariat, the class-struggle began shaking the whole earth. In the process of the class-struggle, the proletariat developed its ideology from Marxism to the level of Marxism- Leninism-Maoism. During the turbulent years of class-struggle, the proletariat and working
people have set unparalleled records of dedication and sacrifice for the achievement of lofty goals o communist ideals. And they are still on their voyage to reach their ultimate destination, synthesising the triumphs and defeats of the class-struggles.
As an inseparable part of world proletarian revolution, the People's War led by Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), a vanguard of the Nepalese proletarian class,
has been going on in Nepal for the last 5 years. Hundreds of Nepalese heroes and heroines have shed their blood in order to bring the great process of achieving the
great ideals of communism to this height. In particular, more than 1,500 people including the Alternate Politburo Member of Central Committee of our Party, Com.
Suresh Wagle (Bashu), first child martyr Dil Bahadur Ramtel, Tirtha Gautam, Bijaya Ghale, Lali Roka, Kamla Bhatta etc. have sacrificed their invaluable lives in this
context. This Second National Conference pays hearty homage to all the martyrs of the People's War and resolutely expresses its commitments to fight till the end
against the enemies m order to materialise their dreams. Moreover, the Conference pays tributes to Chiniya Kaji, Bhim Datta Pant, Kami Budha, the martyrs of Harre-Barre, Jugedi and Jutpani, Rishi Devkota "Ajad", Rambrikshya Yadav, the martyrs of Jhapa revolt, and all known and unknown martyrs of historical mass
movements of 1980 and 1990 who sacrificed their lives in the fight against feudalism and imperialism before the People's War was initiated in Nepal.
With full commitment to and solidarity with proletarian internationalism, the Second National Conference of the Party pays tributes to all the martyrs of Peru, India,
the Philippines, Turkey, Iran, Columbia, Bangladesh and others who gave their lives in order to advance the world revolution.
INTERNATIONAL COMMUNIST MOVEMENT AND ITS HISTORICAL LESSONS
Born together with capitalism, the proletariat is the last, revolutionary and international class of history. In Europe, its emergence and struggle against capitalism paved the way for propounding of Marxism. Of extraordinary talent, Karl Marx along with his very intimate friend, Frederick Engels, discovered the world outlook of the proletariat -the dialectical and historical materialism. Known as Marxism, this scientific discovery was nothing but m essence a supreme synthesis of the experience and knowledge the mankind achieved in thousand of years. This science synthesized with a revolutionary objective of transforming the world, not merely explaining it, brought an unprecedented revolution m thinking of Mankind, and provided a scientific device to understand and transform the world, and to fight against all kinds of dogmas, superstitions & evils of the society.
Marxism proved irrefutably how an unique production relationship is maintained between the people and people, with the development of productive forces in the
process of production and reproduction for fulfilment of material needs, and how total development of history after the stage of primitive communism is the history of
class-struggle as determined by definite scientific laws. This is the allegation of historical materialism against total history.
Exposing the real cause of capitalist exploitation and accumulation of capital m the hands of a handful of capitalists in the society, Marx put forward the great theory of surplus value. Also, Marxism made it clear how capitalism has created a vicious circle of exploitation by turning the human labour into a non-living thing in order to
make more profits, and, at the same time, how it is developing huge battalions of modern proletarian class and is ultimately digging its own grave.
Considering the unprecedented development of productive forces, and the contradiction between socialisation of production process and private appropriation
of production, Marxism presented, bearing the responsibility for social revolution on the shoulder of the proletariat, a scientific ideal of golden communist society by
demolishing the classes and states, and ending all kinds of exploitation of men by men. Marx and Engels laid foundation of basic principles relating to the strategy of
proletariat to pursue for the achievement of great ideals o communist society. In total, fundamental views on the dictatorship of proletariat and socialist state as an
inevitable need for the transitional period from capitalism to communism, need of violent revolution, need of the destruction of the old capitalist state, concept of
development of armed masses, were presented. In his whole life, Engels fought fiercely against the bourgeois trends appearing in the worker's movement to establish
this scientific view.
Against the concept of bourgeois nationalism developed for security and need of the market, Marxism upheld the banner of proletarians internationalism. Chanting the slogan "Workers of all countries, unite!" loudly, the first Communist international was founded with initiative of and under the leadership of Marx and Engels. It spread the scientific ideas of' Communist Manifesto" among the workers and, simultaneously, fought vigorously against various opportunist trends appearing m the
international Communist Movement. It is in this context that in Paris (France), the proletariat, for the first time in history, seized the state through armed revolt.
Renowned as "Paris Commune", all over the world, this historical revolt not only justified the basic principles of Marxism but also helped Marx and Engels to refine it
with the synthesis of the experiences. Though lasting for a short period of only 72 days due to its inherent mistakes, Marx and Engels declared that its experiences
would live forever.
It is particularity remarkable that the views of Marx and Engels on the Paris Commune have been working as a historical inspiration even today to identify and fight
against revisionism and opportunism in the communist movement. Due to the defeat of Paris Commune and conspiracy of opportunists within, the First Communist
international was dissolved. However, after the death of Marx and as per need of new situation, the Second Communist international was formed again under the
leadership of Engels in 1889, which played a significant role in disseminating Marxism in the primary stage. But after Engels death, the leaders of the Second
international, mainly Karl Kautsky, knelt before the bourgeois parliamentarism and betrayed revolutionary principles of Marxism. In course of the hard struggle
against reformism and parliamentarism a Bolshevik party and revolutionary struggle of a new type developed under the leadership of Lenin and socialist revolution
was completed m Russia in 1917. During the life and death struggle against revisionism for the defence of its scientific and revolutionary teachings, Marxism
developed into Marxism-Leninism. Lenin highly stressed that there can be no struggle against reaction unless it is linked with that against opportunism. He elevated
the philosophy of dialectical materialism to a new height. The fact that the principle of unity and struggle of opposites is the only fundamental principle of dialectics was farther explained. By analysing and researching on the characteristics of imperialism, Lenin contributed qualitatively in the field of political economy and defined the new era as the "era of imperialism and proletarian revolution" which made a great contribution in devising the strategy and tactics of revolution. His analyses which were well justified by later events are equally correct even today. Lenin not only enriched Marxism on total aspects of scientific socialism including concept of a new party, strategy of socialist revolution, struggle against revisionism, uniting peasants for revolution in the backward countries and significance of full democratic revolution, proletarian view on right of nations to self- determination, proletarian revolution to lead the national liberation movement in the eastern countries, development and struggle of the workers arid masses in capitalist countries developed in the imperialist period, but also elevated it to a new height of development.
The success of Great October Socialist Revolution created unprecedented waves in the world. The masses oppressed for centuries felt that they had found out a
new way to real liberation. Fiercely resisting the outlook of the imperialists and reactionaries, the Third international was formed with the initiative and under the
leadership of Lenin in 1919 in order to forge ahead the world revolution in an organized way. He, taking Soviet socialist state founded in a very large part of the
earth, as a base area, gave emphasis on advancing the world revolution. The revolution of Germany among the developed countries and the issue of the same in the
countries like India, China among the undeveloped countries was seriously thought over. Declaring that the proletarian revolution in backward countries with a
majority of peasants is "very hard and great," he emphasized on applying general principles of communism in accordance with concrete situation of the country
concerned. Eventually, a concept of "National Democratic Revolution" was put forward as it required to fight against colonial and semi-colonial exploitation, too, in
such countries. However, Lenin emphasized that communist revolutionaries of the countries concerned must work out and develop strategies for revolution
themselves. At this juncture, particular attention must be paid to the stress given by Comintern led by Lenin on the significance of creative application of general
principles of proletarian internationalism and Marxism while then in accordance with the national characteristics of such countries.
At a time, when the struggles are still needed in the international communist movement against the trend which, even today, represents, on the one hand, sectarian
nationalism on the pretext of national characteristics, and, ón the other, the Trotskyist trend which undermines national characteristics on the pretext of internationalism its significance is evident.
After the death of Lenin, Stalin led the international communist movement. He served proletarian movement by undertaking historical tasks such as defeating the right
liquidationism which emerged in the form of so-called permanent revolution of Zenoviev, Kamenov and, mainly, Trotsky; establishing Leninism; strengthening Soviet
Union by collective farming and planned economic development; knocking the Hitlerian fascism to the ground in the Second World War; synthesizing the experiences of Soviet economic development, and leading the whole international communist movement for about three decades.
Nevertheless, the fact that many serious weaknesses prevailed in Stalin and eventually, they caused some serious problems should not go unheeded. While doing so,
our starting point should be, of course Stalin's evaluation made by Mao, in which he has divided his thoughts and works into two aspects and declared 70 of them
correct and 30 wrong.
advancing on the ground of general guideline about revolution in the colonial and semi-colonial countries of pre capitalist stage as put forward by Lenin during the
initial period of Third international and greatly influencing the international power balance, the new democratic revolution was completed successfully in China. The
successful revolution in a huge area with the largest population in the world through struggles of decades, presented a new model for revolution in the semi-feudal and
semi-colonial countries of pre-capitalist stage. As Lenin had called for, Communist Party of China led by Mao undertook the "great and difficult" task of revolution in
an eastern country by creatively applying the universal principles of Marxism-Leninism in their own specificities. In this contest, Communist Party of China led by
Mao enriched and developed the Marxist science. The theory and knowledge of contradiction in the philosophy, analysis of bureaucratic capitalism in the political
economy, development of strategy for new democratic revolution, and universal principle of People's war, concrete concept of party, army and united front, clearly
show the enrichment of Marxism-Leninism.
During the process of revolution, Mao had to fight hard against right and 'left' opportunism of various kinds and the elements who wanted to mechanically copy the
foreign experiences, such as LiLi San, Wang Ming, Chang Kuo -Tao etc. When deeply cogitated, Mao's struggle against LiLi San, Wang Ming etc., seems, in
essence, to be related to the struggle against many mechanical materialist thinking and working styles of Stalin and Comintern, though he never disclosed it. Mao had
called upon the people to be alert against the threat of mechanical materialist and metaphysical thinking that existed in the Communist Party of China and international
communist movement not only through his policy of unity and struggle worked out m the case of united front but also through his great works like " On Contradic-
tions", "On Practice", "Reform Your Studies", "Rectify Working Style", "On New Democracy" etc.
In the international communist movement, Mao defined the party as a unity of opposites, and not as a monolithic and homogenous unity and clarified the fact that
two-line struggle inside the party is, in deed, always the motivating force for the party life. In addition, clarifying the inter-relation between class-struggle in society
and two-line struggle m the party, he presented scientific explanation about the fact that as long as classes are there, the party exists and as long as the party exists,
ideological struggle prevails. He declared the concept of monolithic unity as anti-dialectical and flatly rejected it. His view on party added a new dimension to the
Leninist view of militant party of a new type. Accord ing to Mao, a struggle between the right and wrong ideas always runs inside the party and at certain stage, wrong ideas appear as revisionism and takes in turns into a hostile struggle with the revolutionaries. If non-proletarian ideas prevail in the party, the whole party changes its colour. Therefore, the revolutionaries should be always continuously revolutionising the party through the two-line struggles.
Thus, the Chinese revolution grounded on Marxist-Leninist thoughts goaded millions of workers and peasants on their way to be the masters of their own destiny.
Communist Party of China led by Mao put forward a programme for socialist revolution right after the success of New Democratic Revolution under the leadership
of the proletariat. In this historical process of socialist revolution, the contradictions between the revolutionaries and the people who had been influenced by
the bourgeois character of New Democratic Revolution and joined the revolution, intensified. Right at that period, Stalin died m Soviet Union. The Khruschev
revisionism seized the leadership in the 20th Congress in a counter-revolutionary coup in the Soviet Union, and capitalism was restored. The Khruschev clique was
successful to over tum socialism and dictatorship of the proletariat in the pretext of struggle against personality cult of Stalin. This event shocked the revolutionaries all
over the world. Terrorizing with nuclear arms the clique rejected the decisive role of the people in the making of the history. The renegade Khruschevite clique
advocated class-conciliation instead of class-struggle in the name of three peacefuls". He cloaked his blatant advocacy of bourgeois parliamentarism with the possibility arisen from the changed world situation. Encouraged by the restoration of capitalism in Russia, the Chinese rightists intensified their attack on the proletarian revolutionanes in the party. The Peng Teh Hui event is a concrete example of it.
In the face of the complex situation, Mao seriously thought over the class-struggle in socialism and upheld the banner of struggle against modem revisionism of
Khrushchev outside the country and right opportunism inside the party. During the fierce struggle, Mao put forward, with a scientific analysis of class-struggle in
socialism, a concept of continuous revolution under the dictatorship of the proletariat as the principle to prevent restoration of capitalism and led the Great Proletariat
Cultural Revolution, which is considered as an unprecedented mass-revolution in the whole history of Mankind. With this earth-shaking revolution, Mao armed the
proletarian class with a new weapon to prevent the restoration of capitalism in the socialist society. This great contribution established Mao as the propounder of a
new, third and higher stage of Marxism, i.e. Marxism-Leninism-Maoism. This great revolution prevented restoration of capitalism in China for 10 years.
Notwithstanding the success of capitalist roaders to restore capitalism in China through counter-revolutionary plots due to various national and international reasons
after Mao's death, the significance of the principle he developed has not declined at all, but, instead, it has grown as a beacon for future revolutions.
What is notable here is that Mao, after the Khruschev clique succeeded in restoring capitalism in the Soviet Union without any serious resistance, fought, on the one
hand, to safeguard the achievements of the first socialist state of the world, and on the other, persevered seriously in studying the weaknesses which caused such an
irreparable loss It is in this context that we must understand his defence of Stalin against the attack of Khrushchev clique, and explanation of various mistakes and
weaknesses of him. Mao's evaluation of Stalin stands apart against both rightist revisionism that negates him completely, and sectarian dogmatist revisionism that
accepts even his mistakes and weaknesses. In the international communist movement, the former trend is led by Trotsky, Tito, Khruschev etc., while, the latter trend
is led by Enver Hoxa, etc. Another important point to note is that the Euro-Communism, on the pretext of opposing Stalin's concept of monolithic unity and
bureaucracy, began opposing integrated dialectical materialist science of Marxism, itself from bourgeois anarchist pluralist angle.
When the debate was going on in the international communist movement and Khruschev, the ring-leader of modern revisionism, along with imperialism was
simultaneously defaming Stalin from counter-revolutionary angle, it was but necessary to defend Stalin emphasizing his essentially correct and positive aspects. Doing
so did not mean defending him alone but also the whole communist movement, socialism, and in all, Marxism-Leninism itself. But today things have changed greatly;
the Khruschev revisionism, later turning into social imperialism, has fallen completely with the dissolving of the Soviet Union. In China, the Chinese Khruschovites
have usurped power through a counter-revolutionary coup and restored capitalism after Com. Mao's death. Today there isn't even a single socialist state in the
At this moment, the revolutionaries all over the world are free, without any political pressure, to draw the essence of the experiences of history, and a great
responsibility bas been laid on their shoulder, to fulfil which they must work hard, no doubt. In this context, we must go into the depth of what has been mentioned in
the very beginning of the letter entitled " The Question of Stalin" during the Great Debate launched by the Communist Party of China led by Mao against the
Khruschev revisionism. It states, "The question of Stalin is one of world-wide importance which has had repercussions among all classes in every country and which
is still a subject of much discussion today, with different classes and their political parties and groups taking different views. It is likely that no final verdict can be
reached on this question in the present century". The century as stated by the Communist Party of China led by Mao has ended and 21 st century has already
started. We must focus our attention on defending Stalin's 70 positive contributions and drawing lessons from his 30 errors. As else-where stated in the same article,
"It would be beneficial if the errors of Stalin, which were only secondary, are taken as historical lessons so that... the Communists might take warning and avoid
repeating those errors or commit fewer errors". Another important point is that his errors contain two aspects - the errors committed inevitably due to lack
of experience of the dictatorship of the proletariat, and the errors caused by ideological mistakes. It was not possible to prevent the former errors but the latter ones
Listing the errors of Stalin, it is stated in the same article of Great Debate, "In his way of thinking, Stalin departed from dialectical materialism and fell into metaphysics and subjectivism on certain questions and consequently he was sometimes divorced from reality and from the masses. In struggles inside as well as outside the Party, on certain occasions and on certain questions he confused two types of contradictions which are different in nature, contraction between ourselves and the enemy and contractions among the people, and also confused the different methods needed in handling them. In the work led by Stalin of suppressing the counter-revolution, many counter- revolutionaries deserving punishment were duly punished, but at the same time there were innocent people who were wrongly convicted; and in 1937 and 1938 there occurred the error of enlarging the scope of the suppression of counter revolutionaries. In the matter of Party and government organization, he did not fully apply proletarian democratic centralism and, to some extent, violated it. In handing relations with fraternal Parties and countries he made some mistakes. He also gave some bad counsel in the international communist movement. These mistakes caused some losses to the Soviet Union and the international communist movement".
In the background of experiences of Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, Maoism and contemporary international communist movement, what is evident today is the fact that although he was a great Marxist-Leninist, Stalin's ideological mistakes have substantially influenced the world communist movement subjectively.
Categorically speaking, he had some weaknesses m his thinking of understanding and dealing with fundamental principles of dialectics, the unity and struggle
of opposite. Taking the communist party as a monolithic unity, instead of unity of opposites, led him to errors in identifying the nature relations and ways of dealing
of two -line struggle inside the party. As a result, it was declared, on the ground of rapid economic growth through elimination of private ownership, collective farming and industrialization, that there was no hostile class- contradiction in the Soviet society, which violated basic principles of Marxism- Leninism. Such analysis made Stalin think one-sidedly that threat to the Soviet society may occur from external intervention and conspiracy only. The emphasis on possibility of counter-revolution from external intervention and conspiracy, instead of paying adequate attention on how new capitalism is produced within the communist party itself in the Soviet society and how to control them, violated at times Lenin's basic postulates on the relation building formation in one country of socialism and development of world revolution developed at the primary period of the Comintern.
Though there was no ill intention at all, the emphasis on safeguarding the Soviet society from external threat virtually undermined internationalism and exaggerated
Russian nationalism, which created a lot of confusions about understanding and advancing the world revolution and functioning of the Comintern. It is to be
remembered that Lenin, while forming the Comintern, had stressed the concept of world revolution and world communist party and everything would be subsumed
under it, but under the leadership of Stalin, the world revolution was considered as a part of Soviet Society, instead of vice versa. This is what has been pointed out
by Mao as wrong advice of Stalin on the international communist movement. Stalin took collective farming, industrialization and rapid development of production and
productive forces due to centralized planning in the economic field enough as grounds for the guarantee at the success of socialism and kept on stressing on
it one-sidedly. It undermined the importance of resolving differences prevailing in the society and revolutionizing the production relations. This helped in developing a
new bourgeois class which was represented later by counter-revolutionary Kbrushchevite clique from inside the party and thus established the dictatorship of the
bourgeoisie by overturning that of the proletariat.
Drawing lessons from the errors of Stalin due to historical limitations and ideological weaknesses, Mao studied seriously the economic policy and pointed out its
positive and negative aspects to elevate the Marxist- Leninist principles regarding the class-struggle in a socialist society to a new height in order to prevent
restoration of capitalism and presented a new model of socialist economy that required one to be red and expert, and to walk with two legs, etc. Collective
ownership of production alone does not guarantee the success of socialism because many kinds of differ ences such as mental and physical labour, city & village,
capitalist stage of the production of commodities still exist in the society which continue to provide material ground for growth of new capitalist class. Therefore Mao
made it clear that characteristics of both communism and capitalism exist in socialism and there remains the danger of capitalist restoration. He aptly presented the
scientific truth that march towards communism is possible by regulating capitalism through the process of continuous revolution after the proletariat sizes the political
On the basis of this principle he led the people to exercise the right to rebel against the capitalist roaders of the party who advocated the Khrushevite line which
advocated that it was good to be rich. He drew a clear demarcation line between the Marxist revolutionaries and revisionists with the principle of 3 Dos and Don'ts:
'Practice Marxism, not revisionism; Unite, do not split; Be open and above board, do not conspire and intrigue'. With the slogan, "Bombard the bourgeois
headquarter," he called upon the people to invade the fort of revisionists. During the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, through the struggle against the renegades
Liu Shao Chi, Lim Piao, and Teng Hsiao Ping, he further developed the dialectical method of achieving new unity on a new basis in the party through a process
ofunity-struggle-transformation and emphasized the need to form party committees according to the principle of 3 in 1 with olds, adults and youths in order to
transfuse new blood in the party. However, it was not possible to sweep away all the rightists who had reached higher echelons in the party and government,
because of several negative impacts of international communist movement, historical limitation of class struggle and since it had been virtually late in exposing them. But it has enhanced the importance of the principle developed. Some people do not realize the complexity of the cultural revolution period and blame Mao for a number of compromise in the later period, which is completely wrong. He had been promoting the rise of revolutionaries including Chiang Ching, Chiang Chun Chiao as a revolutionary core in the party. He was in fact, leading the so-called gang of four and was the most farsighted.
In this regard, an important question may be raised-why didn't he take any initiative for building a new Communist :international, through he had experience of waging
historical struggle against Khrushchevite revisionism and conducting Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution? In reply, several negative experiences of the Comintern in
the latest period night be put forward but that simply can't be the major factor. As a matter of fact, Mao had been ideologically leading he international communist
movement by waging struggle against Khrushchevite revisionism and leading the Great 'proletarian Cultural Revolution, and by supporting, co-operating with and
disseminating the national liberation, new democratic and socialist revolutions all over the world. But objectively there were some serious practical difficulties in
giving them an organized form. Among the visible ones were dogmatist revisionist, centrist and chauvinist communist parties of albania, Vietnam and North Korea etc. who would reject the universal contributions of Mao. And it was not possible to form the communist international by ignoring all of them at that time. But today the situation has changed greatly. There is not even a single socialist state in the world. Genuine revolutionaries have upheld Maoism as higher stage of Marxism-Leninism. New wave of revolution appears in the horizon. Now, Marxism- Leninism-Maoism is there as an ideological foundation for the creation of a new communist international. All the communist revolutionaries need to march forward Seriously to give it an organized form through class and ideological struggle. Today RIM has already emerged as an embryo of it. Everybody has to attempt to refine and develop it. Special attention must be paid to conduct discussions and interactions with revolutionaries outside the RIM and uniting them in the movement.
While doing so, the communist revolutionaries should seriously look into the experiences of Comintern and try to resolve the issues of evaluation of 7th Congress
of Comintern, Second World War and dissolving of Comintern, suggestions given to the communist parties of several countries to form government with anti-fascist
bourgeoisie and Lenin's criticism of Millerandism, the position of communist parties of Greece, Italy, France, Spain, India, China etc. and Stalin's role etc. These
questions lie in front of the international communist movement as challenges. Maoism has already provided the scientific basis for the answers to these questions.
Therefore, the communist revolutionaries of the world need to accelerate the initiative to learn from the positive and negative experiences of the past by applying
SOME FUNDAMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INTERNATIONAL SITUATION
The analysis of basic characteristics of imperialism made by Lenin just before the great Russian October Revolution is still correct. Accordingly, the world is in the era of imperialism and proletarian revolution even today. In today's world, there are 4 kinds of basic contradictions-the contradiction between bourgeois and proletariat, the inter-imperialist contradiction for profit and plunder, the contradiction between imperialism and oppressed countries and people, and the contradiction between the capitalist system and socialist system. Among them, the fourth is not in the surface now but as per the past experience and for future guarantee, we must take it into account continuously The socialist revolution comes out of the first contradiction and that is its solution. The second contradiction leads to world war for
re-division of the world but is not permanently resolved. As Mao has said, the proletariat should attempt to prevent the world war as far as possible, but
if unsuccessful, they should work out the policy to turn the world war into world revolution. The third contradiction leads to the national liberation movements and the
contradiction ends with its success.
Among them, the contradiction between imperialism and oppressed countries and people is the principal world contradiction today The party should be clear about
some important ideological and political questions as regards to deciding about the principal world contradiction, because a wrong trend to undemine and neglect the
historical significance of national liberation movement and label it as a sectarian nationalism has been prevailing in the international communist movement. Moreover,
the Trotskyist and, chiefly, Khruschovite revisionism has influenced it to a great extent. The first thing to note here is that, in the course of development of the era
of imperialism and proletarian revolution founding of Russian socialism and forming the Comintern in order to advance the world revolution and formulation of
its strategies, Lenin had stated that the proletarian revolution and national liberation movement should fuse into each other and the fusion would be a historically
important task. Imperialism has been blocking socialist revolution by creating an aristocratic class even within the working class with a portion of their unaccountable
profits extracted through merciless exploitation and plunder of the masses of colonial and semi-colonial countries of the world. Therefore, Lenin, paying due attention
to the importance of incorporating national liberation movement within the proletarian movement, forwarded the slogan, "Workers and oppressed people of the world, unite!" He concentrated maximum attention on the national liberation movements of the oppressed countries including India, China. On the basis of this analysis of Lenin, Mao developed in the world proletarian movement a total concept of the significance and the question of leadership of the national liberation movement.
Imperialism has been maximizing the exploitation, oppression and political suppression of the people of oppressed countries by using their reactionary ruling classes. It has been reducing the people poorer and poorer by making use of the economy of the oppressed countries as its own integral part and drawing excessive profits through cheap labour and raw material. That is exactly what has made the situation mature for new democratic revolution in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This is why Mao declared these regions as storm centres of world revolution and asserted revolution as being the basic trend of the world. He proclaimed the contradiction between imperialism and oppressed nations as the principal contradiction of the world. Grasping the historical truth that national liberation movement had become the integral part of world proletarian movement, Mao developed the strategic method of establishing proletarian leadership over it. In spite of important changes in the form, Mao's analysis stands correct in essence even today. During the cold war, the Russian social imperialism and U.S. imperialism spent huge amount of money in arms for the expansion of their influence and eventually turned into superpowers. They imposed various kinds of regional wars on the oppressed countries and another world war appeared very close. But the Russian social imperialism could not maintain its old form due to the imperialist crisis and collapsed politically and economically. Ironically, the western imperialism propagated this collapse as the collapse of communism and celebrated joyously its unipolar hegemony.
This event definitely enabled the US imperialism more opportunity for direct plunder, exploitation and intervention in the "third world" and the entire world. This
accelerated the unhindered mobilization of financial capital in the world-wide scale. This is what has been hailed by imperialism as 'globalization'. Through this
'globalization' imperialism has entrapped the whole economy of the oppressed countries and has been dictating and pressurising the ruling reactionary classes of those
countries to pursue the policy of liberalization in order to speed up the flow of capital. Through the economic giants like World Bank, IMF etc., imperialism has
created the environment to play the role of director and controller of economic affairs of the oppressed countries. Mainly the U.S. imperialism grew more and more
encouraged to grab unlimited profits by mixing up the unprecedented progress in science and technology including electronics with the cheap labour of the third
After all, what ultimate objective result has the imperialist campaign of 'unipolar world', 'globalization' and 'liberalization' brought? The experience of the last 10 years
has been already showing the truth. This is intensifying the contradictions between different classes and between rich and poor countries. Even according to the data
(which is best manipulated to suit the interests of the authority concerned) prepared by the imperialists the rich countries with only 25 population of the world own 80
of world wealth, meanwhile 85 have only 15 in their hands. Today 2.5 billion people are extremely poor, 1 billion people are living their extremely miserable life
below the absolute poverty line. 80 million people of third world are forced to leave their country for their livelihood every year. More than 20 million children are
forced to labour. Class contradiction is intensifying even in the imperialist countries. Even in the USA, the number one hoodlum of the world, more than 20 million
people are suffering from absolute poverty. Racial discrimination, inequality, unemployment, homelessness, social insecurity, women's oppression etc. are growing
day-by-day. They cause the resentment of the people from time to time, to suppress which the ruling classes are compelled to use special military force and devise
new strategy. In Western Europe, unemployment has been institutionalized and people resort to street struggles because of shortage and inflation. Suppression, terror, religious and communal riots against people's resentment, national liberation movement and socialist movement developing everywhere in the third world countries have been the daily routine of the imperialists and reactionaries.
The fact that their political cover bearing the signboard of parliamentary democracy has been tom to pieces has been splendidly brought about by the recently
conducted drama of U.S. presidential election. If a country advocates even a little of economic and political freedom, the imperialists take no time in imposing
economic sanction against them, resorting to political pressure, and military intervention and genocide. Their intervention in Iraq, Yugoslavia, Palestine,
Mexico along with other Asian , African and Latin American countries verify this.
Imperialism has built a gigantic mechanism of military force and strategy in order to maintain the new ' world order'. The U.S. imperialism has developed military
strategy 'to keep up' its global economic plunder and hegemony. According to the data of their defense budget, the U.S imperialism has allocated $262 billions in the
defense alone which is almost half of that of the world. When the defense budget of its alliance partners like NATO countries, Japan, Israel, South Korea, also are
included, it exceeds 80 of the world. Today the USA has become the main headquarter for arms smuggling. The US imperialism has, through its military - industrial
complex been successfully looting the world and fooling their people by parting with a small portion of its loots. It has put on alert a huge military force in the Gulf and Korean Peninsula to fight against Iran, Iraq, Libya, Syria, North Korea and Cuba whose total defense budget amounts to $15 billion only. As Lenin has stated about imperialism, the USA has been giving priority to its military force to continue its political and military hegemony over its alliances, and is intensifying the activities with its global military hegemony in the countries like India, China in order to capture the huge storage of cheap labour and raw materials. On top of this its strategic alliance with the Indian expansionism has been rapidly growing and dark clouds of massive plunder and genocide in South Asia are looming larger. The opening of a FBI branch in Delhi is its evidence. These facts show the importance of Mao's concept of three worlds in the immediate tactical sense.
However, facts have also indicated that objectively the imperialists, mainly the Yankee imperialism, have been getting fully engulfed in the contradictions with the
oppressed countries and people. Though there is no contention between the super-powers at present, following the end of cold war, the so-called unipolar dream is
what can never come true as shown by open and disguised clashes and conflicts of economic and political interests between the USA, European community,
Japan and Russia. With this crisis the possibility of revolt by millions of Masses has seen intensified day-by-day.
We must seriously pay our attention on the following distinct situation, though created by imperialism with an evil intention of grabbing the profits in the present world.
Firstly, it has guaranteed the acceleration of People's consciousness to move from the world of necessity to that of freedom by linking high technology with cheap
labour of the huge population of the masses. Secondly, with the globalization to grab profits, the unprecedented development in the field of information technology,
mainly electronics, has narrowed down the world just to a small rural unit. Therefore, it is very likely that an event of any place will have a great positive or negative
impact on the whole world and vice versa. Thirdly, the world-wide system of imperialism of producing and distributing the arms has been indirectly playing role for
technical cal preparation for the people's was at world-wide scale. Fourthly, the unlimited production and (;'globalisation of the social process of it has strangely built a material ground in a rapid way for the communist principle of work according to the capacity and distribution according to the need. Fifthly, and mainly, imperialism, by intensifying the class struggle, principally the contradiction of the imperialism and oppressed countries and people to the maximum, has been preparing a revolutionary objective situation for 80% people of the world.
Through the internal contradiction of the imperialists, unequal development and distribution as per the inherent character of capitalism, the development of this
objective situation will lead to the revolution in any country in Asia, Africa and Latin America, and its international importance is just evident. It magnificently justifies
Mao's analysis that Asia, Africa and Latin America shall be the storm centres of revolution. These characteristics clearly indicate that 21st century shall be the century of people's wars, and the triumph of the world socialist system. Apart from this, it also shows that there has been a significant change in the prevailing concept of model of revolution after 1980. Today the fusion of the strategies of armed insurrection and protracted people's war into one another has been essential. Without doing so, a genuine revolution seems almost impossible in any country.
The historical need of today is to advance the world revolution through the means of People's war in accordance with particular characteristics of each country by
developing genuine communist parties on the basis of Marxism-Leninism-Maoism to lead the masses in different countries. This historical responsibility can't be
Borne until the universality of Mao's contributions for the world revolution is upheld and Marxism-Lenuusm-Maoism is established as its ideological commander.
The new situation has been preparing ideological and material ground for the formation of a new communist international to advance the world revolution by learning
lessons from the past experiences. RIM (Revolutionary internationalist Movement), constituted on the principles of Marxism-Leninism-Maoism to co-ordinate
revolutionary movements of various countries and to advance the world revolution, is a significant step in this direction. It has been developing through experiences of revolutionary movements and ideological struggles of various countries. Serious challenges are posed before the RIM for the development of a new international, like developing an integrated understanding through scientific synthesis of the world communist movement, mainly, Comintern, second world war and Stalin's role; struggling against ultra- internationalist Trotskyist deviation that minimizes the national liberation movement, on the one hand, and ultra-nationalist deviation that undermines proletarian internationalism, on the other; co-operating to develop the genuine Maoist parties in various countries; and uniting with all existing revolutionary parties through struggles, etc. Facing these challenges successfully, all genuinely proletarian revolutionaries need to accelerate their initiatives for the development of a new international. What is most important is to correctly grasp the nature of contradiction between imperialism and oppressed countries and people, and establishing proletarian internationalism as the leader of national liberation movement. A world revolution isolated from the struggle to establish the world-wide significance of revolution developed in any backward country of asia, Africa and Latin America is just impossible.
Finally, it is crystal clear from the analysis of the world situation that the world order of the imperialists is the rotten, barbarian and terrorizing system which is but a
curse for the whole mankind, Material condition for the establishment of the great ideals of communism with complete elimination of exploitation and oppression
of Man by man has been growing more and more mature and the political parties of the proletariat need to take initiatives from new heights in order to courageously
advance the world revolution. 21st century shall be the century of world revolution. Marxism-Leninism-Maoism shall be its ideological leader.
ON THE SITUATION IN SOUTH ASIA
South Asia, with 20 of the world's population, has suffered greatly from poverty, scarcity, illiteracy, and unemployment due to feudal and imperialist suppression.
The people of this region have been making for years a series of dedication and sacrifices in the national liberation and democratic movements for their progress and
liberation. It should be comprehended that both the feudal and imperialist suppression and the just straggle of the people against it are reaching to a climax and are
heading toward the decisive collision. The more the revolutionary struggle of the people intensifies, the more the reactionary ruling classes of Nepal, India, Sri Lanka,
Pakistan, Bangladesh kneel down before imperialism, increase the exploitation and suppression of the people and heighten the state terror. Ruling classes of each
country of this region are facing severe contradictions with the needs and aspirations of the masses. Armed national • liberation movements, democratic movements
and people's war are shaking the whole region. Advancing Maoist revolutionary movement by posing grave challenges to reactionary classes and presenting a
concrete alternative for the masses, is another positive aspect of this region.
The Indian monopoly capitalist ruling class, the true successor of British imperialism, has been pursuing the expansionist policy of pressure, intervention and sabotage
against the national aspirations of the people and neighbouring countries. It has been endeavouring to quell with guns and state terror the aspirations of the people
of Kashmir and North -Eastern states and new democratic movements in Andhra, Bihar, and intensifying the pressure, sabotage and provocative activities under the
strategy of Making Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka as new Sikkim. With an intention to isolate Pakistan after the end of the Cold War and fulfil its desire for
regional hegemony, the Indian ruling classes have knelt down before US imperialism and have opened the door for them for merciless exploitation of the people of this region m the pretext of liberalization. The Indian ruling class has been abetting the imperialist master-plan to encircle China and make it capitulate completely by
taking India in its grip. It has been blatantly making interventions in the internal affairs of neighbouring countries in order to enthrone its agents and advance the process of 'Sikkimization'. It has been harboring plots to link the people's war in Nepal going on for 5 years with Pakistan, China and smugglers and thereby confusing the Indian people.
It has been the characteristic of the Indian ruling class to conspire to use the common aspirations of national democratic revolution against the semi-feudal and
semi-colonial condition, distinct nature of geo-political position and economic, political, religious and cultural relations established among the people since history, to
fulfil its regional hegemonistic aspiration. The Indian ruling class and its aspirations have been working behind the similar policy and nature of suppression and terrorist
intrigues practised by ruling classes of all the countries of this region. This distinct condition provides a unique nature to the need, possibility and importance of unity in the just struggle of the people of all countries of this region. Theoretically, the possibility of direct fusion of national liberation movement and proletarian movement, as stated by Lenin, can also be witnessed here. Due to the uniqueness of economic, political, cultural and geographical condition and the unchallenged hold of lndian
monopoly capitalism, it will be very difficult for any single country of this region to successfully complete the new national democratic revolution and even if it succeeds following the distinct contradictions, it will be almost impossible for it to survive. The revolutionaries need to seriously concentrate on the fact that a
particular country or a particular territory of a country shall be liberated through the force of common and joint struggle of the people of this region following the
unequal stage of development, and that can play only a particular role of base-area for the revolution in the whole region.
Right here, all the revolutionaries of the region should pay their attention on Lenin's effort to generalize the great Russian October Revolution of 191.7, founding of
Soviet Union and their experience. It is clear that real liberation is impossible unless it becomes a part of or serves the world revolution on the basis of proletarian
internationalism. This is the peculiarity of the era of imperialism and proletarian revolution. The workers have no country and the slogan " Workers of the world, unite" has been always making the proletarian revolutionaries cautious about their international responsibility. The challenge of applying the universal principles
of Marxism-Leninism-Maoism in the particularity of the national liberation and democratic movements of this region under the guidance of the great idea and aspiration of proletarian internationalism, remains formidable. The unification of the struggles for right of nations to self-determination and the proletarian movement alone can meet this challenge. To grasp this properly, we should seriously ponder over the concept of national democratic revolution put forward by Lenin after founding the Soviet Union and in the initial period of Comintern, and the concept of new democratic revolution put forward by Mao.
When we think over this, because of the distinct condition of this region it becomes clear that it is inevitable for the communist revolutionaries to devise an integrated
strategy against the Indian ruling classes of monopoly bourgeoisie and their agents in various countries. This inevitability has knocked the door of the necessity
of turning the region into a new Soviet federation of 21st century. Therefore, the Maoist revolutionaries of various countries of this region are required to debate from
this height and to work out a unified understanding, integrated strategy, organizational structure of a distinct kind, and long-term and short-term plans of struggle.
Apart from the economic, political, cultural and geographical peculiarities, from the perspective of the growth of communist movement the region-wide influence
of Naxalbari movement led by Charu Majumdar as a against modem revisionism, fraternal relations and exchange of ideas and technical co-operation growing among the Maoist revolutionaries, and common programmes at the people's level, etc., have been preparing concrete basis for the fulfilment of this historical need. It is clear that the more the revolutionary struggle develops, the more intensifies the counter-revolutionary conspiracy, and therefore, there is need to develop integrated efforts among the revolutionaries .
The process of applying the universal principles of Marxism-Leninism-Maoism in the regional peculiarity will play an effective role m waging struggle against the
conspiracy of U.S. imperialism in this region, mainly in India. Thus, the unified initiative of this region as an integral part of world revolution will make important
contribution to the world revolution. Hence, the co-operation of Mainly the RIM and other revolutionary internationalist forces is essential in order to advance this
process in a natural and scientific way. However, the important thing is the responsible initiative of the revolutionaries of the region themselves. The road is difficult and challenging, but the future is bright; the victory of proletarian internationalism and that of the masses of the people is guaranteed.
Continue to part II